The tables below show the values of Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) and Poisson's ratio at room temperature for ceramics and semiconductor materials used in engineering. The material's properties are expressed in average values or in ranges that can vary significantly depending on the processing and material quality. The exact values can be measured using the Sonelastic^{®} Systems at room temperature as well as at low and high temperatures.

#### Ceramics and semiconductor materials

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Ceramics and semiconductor materials | |||

Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)
99.9%: |
380 | 55 | 0.22 |

Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) 96%: |
303 | 44 | 0.21 |

Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) 90%: |
275 | 40 | 0.22 |

Zirconia (3 mol % Y2O3): |
205 | 30 | 0.31 |

Silicon carbide (sintered): |
207-483 | 30-70 | 0.16 |

Silicon carbide (hot pressed): |
207-483 | 30-70 | 0.17 |

Silica, fused: |
73 | 10.6 | 0.17 |

Silicon, single crystal (100): |
129 | 18.7 | 0.28 |

Silicon, single crystal (110): |
168 | 24.4 | - |

Silicon, single crystal (111): |
187 | 27.1 | 0.36 |

Silicon nitride (reaction bonded): |
304 | 44.1 | 0.22 |

Silicon nitride (hot pressed): |
304 | 44.1 | 0.30 |

Silicon nitride (sintered): |
304 | 44.1 | 0.28 |

Diamond (natural): |
700-1200 | 102-174 | 0.10-0.30 |

Diamond (synthetic): |
800-925 | 116-134 | 0.20 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

**Main applications:**

- Alumina and zirconia: ceramics, refractories, abrasives and components resistant to abrasion and chemical attacks.

- Silicon carbide: refractory materials and abrasives (grinding wheels and sandpaper).

- Silica: construction materials, refractories, abrasives and manufacturing glass.

- Silicon, single crystal: semiconductor electronics.

- Silicon nitride: advanced ceramics of high strength and stability.

- Diamond: abrasive cutting devices, optical components and electronics.

The defects and microstructure of ceramics are crucial to calculate the Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity), Poisson's ratio and damping (internal friction). As the number of defects increases, the Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) and Poisson's ratio decrease, whereas the damping increases.

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of polycrystalline materials can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at low and high temperatures. The elastic moduli and damping characterizations are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### Glasses

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Glass | |||

Borosilicate (Pyrex): |
70 | 10.1 | 0.20 |

Soda-lime: |
69 | 10 | 0.23 |

Glass ceramic (Pyroceram): |
120 | 17.4 | 0.25 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

**Main applications**

- Borosilicate (Pyrex): glassware for laboratories; it is resistant to thermal shock.

- Soda-lime: household containers; it has a low melting temperature.

- Glass ceramic (Pyroceram): glassware for oven's use; it has high thermal shock resistance.

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, Shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of glasses can be accurately characterized by the non-destructive Sonelastic^{®} Systems testing at room temperature, as well as at low and high temperatures. The elastic moduli and damping characterization are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### Concretes and refractories

Material | Modulus of elasticity | Poisson’s ratio | |

GPa | 10^{6} psi |
||

Concretes and refractories | |||

Concrete for building: |
25.4-36.6 | 3.7-5.3 | 0.20 |

High alumina refractory castable: |
100-150 | 14.7-21.8 | 0.20 |

MgO-C refractory castable: |
40-70 | 5.8-10.2 | 0.05-0.15 |

Fireclay refractory: |
30-50 | 4.4-7.3 | 4.4-7.3 |

Silicon carbide refractory: |
30-50 | 4.4-7.3 | 0.10-0.20 |

Mullite refractory: |
15-25 | 2.2-3.6 | 0.05-0.15 |

Values for reference only. For exact values, characterize the material using Sonelastic^{®} Systems. |

The values shown for refractory materials are references only. The Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity) and the Poisson's ratio of materials with coarse microstructure depend on the microstructure engineering. Thermal shock damage is also crucial; damage causes the modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio to decrease and the damping to increases.

The elastic moduli (Young's Modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) and damping of concretes and refractories materials can be accurately characterized with the Sonelastic^{®} Systems of non-destructive testing, both at room temperature as for low and high temperatures. The measurement of these properties is widely used in the evaluation of thermal shock damage.

The knowledge of exact values is vital for the optimization of each material's use and for the reliability of Finite elements analyses (FEA). The characterizations of the elastic moduli and damping are also employed in the engineering of new variations of these materials.

#### References

*ASM Handbooks, Volumens 1 and 2, Engineered Materials Handbook, Volumen 1 and 4, Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th edition, e Advance Materials e Processes, Vol. 146, No.4, ASM International, Materials Park, OH; Modern Plastic Encyclopedia´96,*

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